IMPERIUM ARCHIVE

VOLUME ONE


Editorial

Balasubramanyam Chandramohan

ABSTRACT: The South African Indians represent a typical example of the Indian diaspora thriving in their lands of adoption. Arriving virtually as slaves in Natal, today many occupy senior positions in business, the professions, politics and community organisations. Nevertheless, the pioneering labourers made great sacrifices and laid the foundations for future generations. Various White governments have made attempts to repatriate them to the land of their origin. This has been strongly resisted and demonstrates the sincere desire of the Indians to remain in South Africa. With the advent of the first truly democratic elections, and the election of the ANC government, a great deal of uncertainty exists about the future of the Indians. Many Indians perceive the policy of affirmative action as favouring the indigenous Blacks and another obstacle. However, many opportunities are opening up as Whites leave South Africa to seek the security of the developed countries.
ABSTRACT: When Samuel Beckett was asked by a French interviewer, ‘You are English, Mr Beckett?’, he famously replied ‘Au contraire’, thereby suggesting that Irishness was somehow opposite to, but also inextricably linked to, Englishness. Throughout the 20th century, Irish writers and artists have worked within the parameters of a definition of Irishness that was intimately connected with, if also often at odds with, the notions of Englishness which had become familiar to Ireland throughout its long history as a colony. Irish writers have adopted various positions with regard to the complex set of oppositions and commonalities engendered by Irish and Anglo-Irish identities. This paper critically examines these conflicting views of Irish identity.
ABSTRACT: Central to the issue of the integration of post-war settler communities in Britain is the question of identity. Maintenance of identity and community mobilisation within diasporic minorities is a multi dimensional process. This paper seeks to identify the factors which influence this process with particular reference to the Kashmiris in Britain. Despite the recognition of ethnic minorities and the increasing diversity of British society over the past few decades, the minorities are often considered to be based within a hegemonic societal mainstream . This has an impact on the processes of integration and identity formation by sharply bringing into focus the cultural, religious and social dimensions of the minorities and the societal mainstream. This paper therefore, attempts to develop a discussion and an analysis of factors which influence perceptions, expectations, fears and aspirations that impact on identity formation and maintenance as well as the integration of diasporic minorities..
ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the study of indigenous psychologies that is subjected to external control in terms of the delivery and production of materials and in relation to ‘position and justificatory functions’ within the mainstream discipline. The paper also endeavours to draw a link between historical perspectives and post-historical prejudgemental views in order to explicate the contentious issues of ‘power, regulations and pressures’ to the study of indigenous psychologies.
ABSTRACT: St Kilda, the remotest of the British Isles, evacuated in 1930, has been an object of fascination for outsiders for centuries. The simple life of the islanders, lauded by countless commentators, has been constructed as romantic and heroic and their eventual demise as a tragedy of thoughtless progressivism. Their 'parliament' has been mooted as a form of idealised democracy. The hidden discourse within these representations is of a form of colonialism, which elides questions of ownership and vested interests.
ABSTRACT: India is one of the few countries from the global South to emerge as a significant actor in the international media market. This is because of the particular historical context of the evolution of the media industries in India from the time of British colonialism through more than half century of independence. This paper examines the development of one of the most extensive press and broadcasting systems in the world's largest democracy. It explores the opportunities that globalisation has presented for cultural industries in India, as a consequence of gradual deregulation and privatisation of broadcasting in the 1990s, and looks at how the Indian cultural industries, often in partnership with transnational corporations, have expanded beyond the borders of the country to reach a regional, and increasingly, a global audience.


Reviews:

Ashok Bery & Patricia Murray (ed.), Comparing Postcolonial Literatures: Dislocations, Macmillan Press Ltd (2000), ISBN 0-333-72339-2, 283pp, $55.00
reviewed by Ian Spring.

Robin Jeffrey, India's Newspaper Revolution: Capitalism, Politics and the Indian Language Press, St Martins Press (2000), ISBN 0312232535, 256pp, $47.45.
reviewed by Daya Kishan Thussu.

Ian Baucom, Out of Place: Englishness, Empire, and the Locations of Identity, Macmillan Press (1999), ISBN 069100403X, x + 249 pp.. $11.50 paper.
reviewed by Martin Conboy.

Human & Divine: 2000 years of Indian Sculpture. A National Touring Exhibition organised by the Haywood Gallery, London, for the Arts Council of England
reviewed by Jacques Rangasamy.

 

 

VOLUME TWO


Editorial

Balasubramanyam Chandramohan

ABSTRACT: This paper examines how various cultural forces have shaped and negotiated hybridised postcolonial identities in Hong Kong, and implicates the role of consumer culture in this process during the period 1996-1999. With an account of interactions among local cultures, national discourses and Asian and global values, it theorises identity formation in Hong Kong in the postcolonial era.
ABSTRACT: In Marxism and Literature, Raymond Williams provides a rationale for establishing Cultural Materialist readings of literary texts on the basis of imploding disciplinary boundaries (via the notion of equivalence) by locating textual evidence of a particular sort and of a particular discourse simultaneously in two or more supposedly separate categories or contexts. This paper takes this approach in respect to discourses of military imperialism and the role of women as evidenced through two texts Ð Henry James's The Bostonians and The Tragic Muse Ð focussing on the hybridisation of this discourse and the contradictory political readings that are produced from it.
ABSTRACT: This paper examines the impact of policy on Scottish teachers. Taking a historical perspective and focusing on the last quarter of the twentieth century, it seeks to chart how the policy of subsequent governments, both in terms of the United Kingdom and local/ devolved contexts, have shaped and changed the nature of the teaching profession from an industrial relations perspective. Under particular scrutiny are the reforms and policy of the post-1979 Conservative Governments and the implications of the devolution that was overseen by the post-1997 Labour Government. It discusses the development of the Scottish system of education as a distinct entity from that in the rest of the British Isles and the differences in policy making and implementation between Scotland and the rest of the UK. It concludes with speculation on the likely course of industrial relations in Scottish Education post-devolution.
ABSTRACT: This paper highlights mechanisms of subversion of the moral order in two philosophical narratives where tragedy is enshrined within a discourse of the body. Labou Tansi's fable La vie et demie (1979), from the Congo, and Memoire d'une peau (1998), a posthumous narrative by Williams Sassine from Guinea.

Reviews:

Mark Thompson, Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Luton: University of Luton Press, (1999) ISBN 1 86020 552 6, £16.50. Philip Hammond & Edward S Herman, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London, Sterling Virginia: Pluto Press, (2000) ISBN 0-7453-1631-X, $19.95.
reviewed by Radmila PopoviWill.

Robert Phillipson (ed.) Rights to Language: Equity, Power and Education (2000) London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, ISBN
0-8058-3835-X, £25.00.
reviewed by Rakesh Bhanot.

Thomas Tufte: Living with the Rubbish Queen - telenovelas, culture and modernity in Brazil, Luton: University of Luton Press, Luton, UK, ISBN1-86020-541-0, 284pp, £16.50.
reviewed by Daya Kishan Thussu.

Student Mobility on the Map: Tertiary Education Interchange on the Threshold of the 21st Century. Report of a joint Working Group of The Council for Education in the Commonwealth and UKCOSA: The Council for International Education. Published by UKCOSA, July 2000, ISBN 1-870679-33-4, 86pp, £20.00.
reviewed by Peter Dean.

 

VOLUME THREE

Editorial

ABSTRACT: Taiwan today appears to have reached a cultural and political crossroads. The island’s political destiny – ie, continued independence as a nation-state or, alternatively, absorption into greater China – will determine Taiwan’s future cultural identity and also re-define the complex and surprisingly diverse cultural influences which co-exist within the island today. (Copper, 1999) After the resumption of sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997 and the return of Macao in 1999, only Taiwan remains just beyond Beijing's reach. Against this complex and enfolding pattern of events, eCulture is identified as a significant internal agent for change, particularly amongst urban populations, where the vast majority of Taiwanese reside. By eCulture is meant widespread access and use of various Internet-mediated forms of discourse, such as e-commerce. This paper discusses the role of eCulture in this context and employs a semiotic approach to identity some specific cultural and technological aspects of eCulture in Taiwan.


Guyana: a visitor’s up-date

Andrew Graham-Yooll

ABSTRACT: Guyana's place in South America offers a potential Latin American experience combined and in ontrast with its English-speaking Caribbean existence. This apparently dual status is exaggerated when the country's colonial heritage is considered; where a mix of Dutch, French and British has to be taken into account. And that can be taken further when Guyana's history of African, Indian and Portuguese indentured labour and Chinese immigration are set against the social and historic backdrop. This paper considers the historical and cultural determinants that shape Guyana today and consider both opportunities and threats to the continued stability of the nation.
ABSTRACT: Appropriate technologies were originally conceived to consist of those using local resources to meet local needs. However, it has now been widely acknowledged that various forms of complementary or enabling technologies may be used in the pursuit of sustainable development. The expansion of the global internet has been mainly concentrated in industrialised countries and poses the question of cultural imperialism in the developing world. For developing countries, access to and localised control of information and communications technologies can be used towards the harnessing, management and development of resources to meet national and local needs. Community computers in rural telecentres can be used to promote integrated local development initiatives. Many current problems with IT in developing countries are related to the rapid evolution of hardware and software and the perceived necessity of using proprietary products which entail high costs. The training of network administrators is essential in the quest for local control and should include the use of more appropriate and readily available forms of technology such as open source software and operating systems. Such a strategy, with the administrator effectively acting as community gatekeeper, has the potential to provide a more autonomous, sustainable and long term means of achieving nationally and locally defined development goals.
ABSTRACT: This paper searches for the mythical England of warm beer and cricket on the village green in a much-visited corner of leafy Surrey. Through the writings of nineteenth-century innovators such as William Cobbett and George Sturt, the cultural critics Raymond Williams and Richard Hoggart, and the letters pages of a local newspaper, the question is addressed: does England still exist?
ABSTRACT: The existing literature on George Orwell is considerable and the arguments varied. One approach has been a biographical extension of either a literary or political theme. The effect of such treatment has been what Raymond Williams has referred to as the ‘creation of a character called Orwell who is very different from the writer.’ (Williams, 1979: 385) Starting from that point, this paper follows Williams's suggestion that what is needed is to 'widen the discussion... in other words not Orwell writing but what wrote Orwell.' (Williams, 1979: 388) In taking up this challenge the paper argues that this approach must place England and Empire side by side since Orwell’s conception of one was affected by his perception of the other. More precisely, that to each of these Orwell was, by origin, choice and temperament, an outsider, an observer.
ABSTRACT: This paper explores the representation of the Other and issues of hybridity within Lucy Boston’s Green Knowe children’s books, focusing in particular on The River at Green Knowe (1959). These books draw on common-place models of Englishness and childhood, but also ‘alien’ and ‘non-native’ cultures to create a fantastical setting and series of adventures. Within her books are found multiple boundary crossings and an implicit questioning of adult/colonial mapping that enable her to tackle complex and often threatening issues of displacement. It is the contention of this paper that in this way, domestic Englishness and whiteness are (at least implicitly) thrown into question. Far from being a haven from colonialism and its collapse, the countryside becomes the focus of pagan celebrations and abysmal fears:
ABSTRACT: This paper employs Adam Thorpe’s novel Ulverton (Thorpe, 1994) to explore aspects of contemporary England through its relationship to its rural past. In so doing, it pays special attention to the pastoral as both a style and a narration of the European sense of belonging and place. In this way, an exploration of literary mode becomes at the same time an investigation of what remains a specific epistemological aspect of the European experience. 
reviews:

Christopher Heywood (ed.): Wuthering Heights, Toronto: Broadview Press, ISBN 1-55111-247-7, 520pp, $14.99.

reviewed by Balasubramanyam Chandramohan.


J S Scott and P Simpson-Housley (ed.): with an afterword by Gareth Griffiths: Mapping the Sacred: Religion, Geography and Postcolonial Literatures, Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, ISBN 90-420-1544-6, 486pp, paperback $35.00.

reviewed by Martin Ramey.

David E Morrison: Television and the Gulf War, Luton: John Libbey & Co, ISBN 0956 90577, 100pp, out of print.
David E Morrison et al: Defining Violence: The Search for Understanding, Luton: University of Luton Press, ISBN 1 86020 568 2, 152pp, £14.50.
Richard Keeble: Secret State, Silent Press: New millitarism, the Gulf and the modern image of warfare, Luton: University of Luton Press, ISBN 1 86020 512 7, 256pp, £14.50.

reviewed by Will Barton Catmur.


Amritjit Singh and Peter Schmidt (ed.): Postcolonial Theory and the United States: Race, Ethnicity and Literature, Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, ISBN 1 57806 251 9, 471pp, paperback $26.00.

reviewed by Lauri Ramey.

Conference: The Organisation of Knowledge in Victorian Britain, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, 17-18 May 2002.

reviewed by Balasubramanyam Chandramohan.


Obituary: Hamish Henderson.

Ian Spring



supported by:

designed by:

The Centre for International Media
Analysis, Department of Media Arts, University of Luton, UK